About BPA

What Is BPA?


Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical produced in large quantities for use primarily in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins.

Where is BPA found?


Polycarbonate plastics have many applications including use in some food and drink packaging, e.g., water and infant bottles, compact discs, impact-resistant safety equipment, and medical devices. Epoxy resins are used as lacquers to coat metal products such as food cans, bottle tops, and water supply pipes. Some dental sealants and composites may also contribute to BPA exposure.

How does BPA get into the body?


The primary source of exposure to BPA for most people is through the diet. While air, dust, and water are other possible sources of exposure, BPA in food and beverages accounts for the majority of daily human exposure.

Bisphenol A can leach into food from the protective internal epoxy resin coatings of canned foods and from consumer products such as polycarbonate tableware, food storage containers, water bottles, and baby bottles. The degree to which BPA leaches from polycarbonate bottles into liquid may depend more on the temperature of the liquid or bottle, than the age of the container. BPA can also be found in breast milk.

Why are people concerned about BPA?


One reason people may be concerned about BPA is because human exposure to BPA is widespread. The 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found detectable levels of BPA in 93% of 2517 urine samples from people six years and older. The CDC NHANES data are considered representative of exposures in the United States. Another reason for concern, especially for parents, may be because some animal studies report effects in fetuses and newborns exposed to BPA.

If I am concerned, what can I do to prevent exposure to BPA?


Some animal studies suggest that infants and children may be the most vulnerable to the effects of BPA. Parents and caregivers, can make the personal choice to reduce exposures of their infants and children to BPA:

Don’t microwave polycarbonate plastic food containers. Polycarbonate is strong and durable, but over time it may break down from over use at high temperatures.

Plastic containers have recycle codes on the bottom. Some, but not all, plastics that are marked with recycle codes 3 or 7 may be made with BPA.

Reduce your use of canned foods.

When possible, opt for glass, porcelain or stainless steel containers, particularly for hot food or liquids.

Use baby bottles that are BPA free.

Most plastic water bottle products receive a recycling code number 1 stamp. Bottles with code 7 symbols warn buyers that these containers consist of resins not listed in code numbers 1-6, and they may contain BPA unless the bottles feature stamps of approval that specifically state that they are BPA-free. Polycarbonate products receive a recycling code number 7 stamp because studies have shown that they can leach BPA, especially when the bottles are heated or contain hot liquids.

Recycling Code Numbers

Recycling Code Numbers –  Recycling Code Letters – Full Names of Resins and Substances

1 – PETE – Polyethylene terephthalate

2 – HDPE – High-density polyethylene

3 – V – Vinyl

4 – LDPE – Low-density polyethylene

5 – PP – Polypropylene

6 – PS – Polystyrene

7 – OTHER – Resins other than six listed, includes polycarbonate

Where can I go for more information?

For more information on what other federal agencies are doing related to BPA, visit the following websites and search for “bisphenol A.”

BPA-Related Journal Articles and Stories

Consumer Product Safety Commission

U.S. Food and Drug Administration

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency


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